Annotated Bibliography On Biomimicry

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Annotated bibliography

Reed, P.A. (2004) ‘Paradigm Shift: Biomimicry’ The Technology Teacher, The Technology Teacher, Vol. 63, No. 4 Pp. 23-27.

The article “Paradigm Shift: Biomimicry” that was written by Reed, P.A. in December/January 2004, discusses biomimicry background and three areas of biomimicry. It explains that in prehistoric period, people lived with nature since it was an important aspect for one to survive in. it was useful in acquiring food, shelter and clothing. In nature, people grew crops and domesticated cattle. In case of illness, medicine was provided by nature.

With time, science evolved where philosophers came up with ideas that people were not aware of. Later, with the developed technology, instruments and systems were developed to help people make work easier. Thus, the natural way of living of the people changed drastically leading to the introduction of specific courses to be taught instead of the general ones (Reed, 2004, p 24). In addition, this article discusses about three areas of biomimicry which include using nature as a model where technological systems are created based on nature. Processes and procedures are created to help understand nature’s model giving examples of seed hooks, synthesis of plant process, adhesives development, and bonding materials in wet environments. Secondly, it uses nature as a measure, since nature knows what is best that is the working, appropriateness and validity of systems. In addition, it discusses examples such as analogy of ecosystems, insulin, enzyme production and ecoparks (Reed 2004, p 23). The third area is using nature as a mentor. Here, it is used to guide philosophers on how to control it, to extract something from it and then duplicate the natural resources.

Moreover, it gives examples such as organic computing, bio computing, and use of spider silk by military.In this regard, it is relevant for it provides basic concepts of bibliograph including its background and main areas (Reed 2004, 25).
Volstad, N. & Boks, C. (2012) ‘On the Use of Biomimicry as a Useful Tool for the Industrial Designer.’ Sustainable Development Volume20, Pp. 189-199.

The aim of writing the article “On the use of Biomimicry as a Useful Tool for the Industrial Designer" is to explore the use of biomimicry for industrial design and discuss existing tools for sustainable product design. In this article, several keys are discussed starting with terms of biomimicry and its disciplines. The article states that biomimicry is used as an inspiration by professionals in solving human problems through biological forms, mechanisms, systems and analogies. The authors point out the uses of biomimicry in several groups of industrial design such as material science, mechanics and dynamics, structure and form (Volstad, & Boks 2012, p 195). The paper discusses the application of biomimicry in design following three levels which include mimicking of natural form, mimicking natural process and mimicking of natural ecosystems. Three applications of reductive view were discussed such as mimicking nature in rebuilding of natural resources’ properties in a laboratory, developing resources and equipment using analogies and metaphors from nature and using shape language from nature to create satisfying products. In addition the paper discusses two tools Biologists at the Design Table and databases used to help in designing. Another tool called Biomimicry Card Deck was proposed and developed to overcome the weaknesses of its predecessors. Finally, this paper gives a critic of biomimicry.This makes it vital for it elaborates biomimicry uses, weaknesses of the tools used and its critic in order to come up with a more manageable tool to use (Volstad, & Boks 2012, p 190).

Arnason, P.O. (2011) ‘Biomimicry: New Technology’ Reykjavik: Reykjavik University Press.

This article aims to create interest to reader on biomimicry technology in order to understand nature and appreciate it (Arnarson 2011, p 62). It does this by introducing the basics of biomimicry and giving its examples. The report states that in 1997, a woman called Janine M. Benyus created a field called Biomimicry that combined engineering and biology to help human beings to solve problems (Arnarson 2011, p 18). In this report, nature is looked at as model, mentor and measure. Several examples of biomimicry are discussed t including the case where Japanese were constructing railway line. Then, a bird-watcher looked in to nature for a solution of railway transportation. Therefore, he decided to design the front of a train in resemblance of a kingfisher. Kingfisher is a bird that dives from the air into water with very little splash. Another example is a lotus leaf where water droplets floats on its surface that led to creation of paint, glass and fabric finishes in order to reduce laborious cleaning (Arnarson 2011, p 21).

Besides, the observation of a whale being easy and effortless when swimming led to the creation of an efficient wind power. In addition, watching chimpanzees enabled the researchers to know how people can heal themselves using herbal medicine. Watching of termites led to creation of buildings that can keep low temperature. On the other hand, the watching of trees and bones led to the development of Soft Kill Option software that utilizes strength and minimize the use of materials in industrial design. The report also explains about biomimicry guild and biomimicry institute that give knowledge on biomimicry. Lastly, it explains a website known as AskNature.org that is used to create an online inspiration source for biomimicry. This article is vital for it gives good examples of biomimicry and lists its organizations.

Works Cited

Arnason, P.O. (2011) ‘Biomimicry: New Technology’ Reykjavik: Reykjavik University Press.
Reed, P.A. (2004) ‘Paradigm Shift: Biomimicry’ The Technology Teacher, Vol. 63, No. 4 Pp.
23-27.
Volstad, N. & Boks, C. (2012) ‘On the Use of Biomimicry as a Useful Tool for the Industrial
Designer.’ Sustainable Development Volume20, Pp. 189-199.

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