The authors of this qualitative study found out that serious games, such as Mingoville, can motivate Chinese students to learn English. Students of two primary schools in China were asked to play the Mingoville interactive English learning computer program. Not all the students were interested with some saying it was a boring game. The study was carried out to find out how a serious game motivates students to learn English and also to identify the factors affecting the students’ motivation and engagement during the time Mingoville was used.
Booth, C. (2011). Reflective teaching, effective learning: Instructional literacy for library educators. Chicago: American Library Association.
Instructional literacy is defined in this book as a mixture of knowledge and different skills that would bring about an education practice that is self-aware, focused on learners, and effective. Chapters 1-7 explains what makes up instructional literacy. Chapter 8 onwards discusses the USER method, the framework for instructional design. USER stands for Understanding, Structure, Engage, and Reflect.
Chung-Yuan, H. Chin-Chung, T.,& Hung-Yuan, W. (2012). Facilitating Third Graders Acquisition of Scientific Concepts through Digital Game-Based Learning: The Effects of Self-Explanation Principles. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 21(1), 71-82.
This quantitative study looks into how self-explanation principles integrated into a digital game would affect the students’ learning about lights and shadows. There were 88 third-grade students from public schools in Taiwan who participated in the activity. Findings from the experiment showed that to enhance students’ understanding of the lights and shadow concepts it was not enough to just expose the students to self-explanation design. The level of engagement in the game was a more significant factor. To assess the students’ understanding, they were given a pretest, retention test, and a posttest.
Gagnon, G. W., & Collay, M. (2000).Designing for learning: Six elements in Constructivist classrooms. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, Calif.
The authors suggest ways to create a learner-centered environment using the principles of Constructivism. The six components of Constructivist Learning Design (CLD) are bridge, exhibit, groupings, questions, reflections, and situation. Chapters on developing situations, organizing groupings, building bridges, and asking questions are all included in the document. Actual classroom situations further enhance the discussions.
Hao, Y., Jon-Chao Hong, Jyh-Tsorng Jong, Ming-Yueh Hwang, Chao-Ya Su, & Jin-Shin Yang. (2010). Non-native chinese language learners' attitudes towards online vision-based motion games. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(6), 1043-1053.
The focus of this research was to find out how effective a visual-based motion game was in facilitating the non-native Chinese children’s capacity to write Chinese characters. The software developed for this study was a Wii-like game wherein the participants’ gestures were evaluated to assess how well they were writing the Chinese characters. All participants scored well in the online. They were also interviewed after the computer game to collect information about their perceptions of the exercise.
Henson, K.T. (2003). Foundations for learner-centered education: A knowledge base. Education, 124(1), 5-16
The definitions of learner-centered education, including those given by John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Len Vgotsky are presented. The author also points out dispositions including education being experienced-based. It is also important to consider the unique qualities of individual learners in the process of designing a curriculum. Since this is a learner-centered approach, the perceptions of learners should be the one that shapes the curriculum. There must also be plenty of activities that develop and address the learners’ curiosity because when learners ask questions they are open to learn more. They also tend to understand deeply when emotions are involved. Most of all it is best to maintain a learning environment that is free from fear.
Huang, H.M. (2002). Toward Constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1), 27-37 p.32
The author discusses methods that facilitate adults’ learning in the distance education platform. In the development of learning methodologies for adult distance education, the author proposes that constructivist principles be utilized because these can assist instructors to develop learning environments that are collaborative and learner-centered. The theories of Dewey, Vgotsky, Piaget, and Bruner all contribute to this constructivist learning environments.
Ke, F. (2008). Computer games application within alternative classroom goal structures: Cognitive, metacognitive, and affective evaluation. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 56(5), 539-556. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/218013661?accountid=11652
This paper reports the results of a study which assessed whether computer games were more effective in learning math rather than the traditional paper and pencil tests. The findings showed that computer games were more effective in motivating the students to learn math concepts. When compared to the paper and pencil tests, the edge of the computer games was not significant. The participants of the experimental study were 487 Grade 5 students from public schools in Pennsylavania.
Leonard, D. C. (2002). Learning theories: A to Z. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press
This is a handy reference for educators as different concepts related to education and learning are presented in concise essays in alphabetical order. The theory to which each concept is associated with is included in each entry. Active learning (constructivism) is also known as discovery learning. The focus of active learning is the learner, thus they are able to understand more the lessons because they are involved in the manner by which the information is communicated.
Liu, E. Z. F. (2011). Avoiding internet addiction when integrating digital games into teaching. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(10), 1325-1335. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/909624798?accountid=11652
The author believes that ultimately educational digital games would be developed which had incorporated appropriate instructional design principles. This document present seven principles related to the use of digital games in education which include setting clear teaching objectives, using games as supplementary tools in teaching, and analyzing learners. It is also important to regard teaching as the main goal which would be supplemented by the games. The students should be at the center of the learning process and their learning has to be evaluated regularly to improve teaching,
Matas, C. & Natolo, M. (2010). Love grammar: student-driven grammar learning games. International Journal of Learning,17(10), 371-382.
In this paper, the authors present the experience of tertiary students in Australia who were learning Spanish. Respondents were asked to fill out questionnaires as well as answer interviews to assess how well their grammar improved. They also worked in pairs to develop their grammar games. For the authors, the grammar game-based learning approach was an effective strategy to enable the tertiary level students to learn because they themselves are involved in the preparation of the games making them feel empowered.
Muhanna,W. (2012). Using Online Games for Teaching Vocabulary for Jordanian Students Learning English as a Foreign Language. Journal of College Teaching and Learning-Third Quarter, 9 (3)
This study had 167 participants who were all tenth-graders. The author conducted this research to assess if an online game was a more effective platform to teach vocabulary to students compared to traditional methods. Another aim of the research was to check if gender affects the effectiveness of online games. The findings of the research showed that online games facilitate learning of English vocabulary words because the games provide a relaxed and fun atmosphere for students.
Reinders, H., & Wattana, S. (2011). Learn English or Die: The effects of digital games on interaction and willingness to communicate in a foreign language. Digital Culture & Education, 3:1, 3-29.
The authors posit that digital games contribute to the acquisition of English as a second language. In this study college students in Thailand played the Ragnarok Online game which was modified to suit the requirements of the study. The results show that there were positive effects in the quantity of second-language interaction. In terms of second language acquisition, the study showed that online games increase the speakers’ confidence in using English because the environment is relaxed and they are less anxious.
Yip, F. & Kwan, A. (2006). Online Vocabulary Games as a tool for teaching and learning English vocabulary. Educational Media International.43(3), .233-249
The focus of this quasi-experimental study is vocabulary learning. Participants of the study were 100 engineering students and three teachers who were divided into two groups and underwent a nine-week vocabulary input. The experimental group which learned vocabulary words from two websites with games performed better in the post test. The control group learned vocabulary words using traditional methods.