The centuries, that is, from 13th to 15th were accompanied by very important scientific discoveries which had several impacts unto the society. Examples of these inventions were ; Anemometer, which was invented by an Italian architect Leon Battista between 1490-1492.These instruments led to more development in scientific discoveries in the society from that time up to date.Martin, a German mapmaker; alsoinvented the first globe, which is used to determine direction. Theinstrument acts as source of income to the society to date since it is kept in a German museum. In 1400s, the Portuguese sailors invented a caravel. It could be used for the exploration of African coast this then favoured colonization. There was also invention of screwdriver which has improved workshop operations in engineering .In 1476, William Caxton invented a first printing press which has impacted standardization of English spelling up to date.
Peter Paul Rubens, a great painter; who used the baroque styles, shared some sort of extravagance represented by Palace Versailles. These involved colours, sensuality, portraits, landscapes and history painting of mythological subjects. Ruben also applied the use of full light, air and movement features, vibrant colours and modern impressions.
I do agree with the enlighten philosophers and Captain James Cook view of human universality. This is due to various level of research through several voyages that the captain and other philosophers organized. Moreover, the captain, through his several voyages all over the world could have given him a ground support for his view. They also took a study for all living things; this would make them understand more about the human character.
Taking Africa; as a representative of a third world country, theSocial, political and economic underdevelopment interrelates with each other at different levels. For example the low economic standards in Africa have contributed to poverty, high mortality rate, low living standards which affect the social welfare in the society. Politics have also been accompanied by vice such as bribery, corruption, tribalism, nepotism and assassinations, just to mention but a few, due to low economic state. These inreturn have led to underdevelopment.
Indicators that are most useful for political development are like the freedom of the media, the integrity of the election body. The level of literacy, the politicians promises, the maturity of the judiciary body are also very important indicators.
Gupta, A. and James F. (2006), "Beyond 'Culture': Space, Identity, and the Politics of Difference," Cultural Anthropology 7(1): 6–23