Community corrections form a critical part of the criminal justice system. Community corrections are in the form of sanctions that are intended to ensure that offenders serve all or a part of their entire sentence in the community. There are a number of community-based sanctions which include residential programs, economic sanctions and nonresidential sanctions. Economic sanctions hold offenders accountable for their actions and they include fines, fees, forfeiture and restitution. Intermediate sanctions are sentencing options that fall between probation and incarceration. Nonresidential sanctions increase supervision levels while allowing offenders to remain in the community. Some of these sanctions include intensive supervision probation, electronic monitoring, home detention and day reporting centers.
Intensive supervision probation can be described as a highly structured program that requires the offender to comply with strict probation terms. Therefore, it provides strict surveillance, control and supervision in a way that restricts and monitors the movement and activities of the offender in the community. Electronic monitoring involves the use of electronic technologies to supervise and monitor offenders. When offenders violate home curfews, these technologies alert the supervising officers. Such technologies include RF systems and GPS technology. Home detention ensures that offenders stay within their property or home confines, until a time that is specified by the sentencing authority. Day reporting centers are treatment facilities that require offenders to report for various forms of treatment or drug testing, often on a daily basis.
2. Explain in detail, parole management, case planning, and reentry.
The management of offenders on parole is a critical part in community corrections. This is because parole offers a supervised and controlled manner of integrating offenders into the community after serving their prison sentences. Therefore, effective parole management ensures the smooth reentry of offenders back into the community. Reentry involves the actual integration of offenders back into the community. Successful reentry increases public safety, enhances the health of community, sustains families, lowers expenses of criminal justice and enhances children’s welfare. Therefore, this successful transition is a product of sound parole management and case planning. Case planning can be effective through a process that engages the offender, adequately targets intervention needs, and is adaptable and flexible. Effective case planning leads to the reduction in the risk of recidivism and ensures successful reentry into the community.
3. Please explain in detail the supervision of juveniles in the community. Please be sure to discuss probation, the juvenile court system, the role of juvenile records, child protective services, residential programs, restorative justice techniques, and gangs.
Usually, the juvenile court system places juvenile offenders on probation. These youths require monitoring, and this monitoring is known as community supervision. There are probation terms that comprise of fines, community service hours, detention days, fines and restitution. Some of the additional terms can include random drug testing, school attendance, curfew, and participation in treatment or counseling. Youth offenders who are under supervision are introduced to programs on the basis of the type of offense, the extent of risk, needs and requirements of supervision. Often, juvenile offenders are assigned to probation counselors who facilitate their reentry into the community. These probation officers are responsible for the development and implementation of case plans, responding to court orders’ violations and assessments, counseling and evaluations. Youths under parole supervision are vulnerable to influences that might cause them to violate their terms of parole. Such influences include gangs and gang-related activities. Also, during supervision, restorative justice programs aim to create communication between youth offenders, victims of the offense and members of the community in order to deal with juvenile offending and their consequences. Therefore, supervision of juveniles in the community is a collective task that involves both the criminal justice system and the community.
4. Please explain in detail, the specialized and problematic offender typologies in a changing era.
Often, specialized and problematic offenders suffer from symptoms, disorders and illnesses that are not commonly or fully understood by a majority of personnel at the community corrections agencies. This makes it difficult for community corrections agencies to effectively supervise specialized and problematic offenders. Some of the common specialized and problematic offenders include sex offenders, substance abusers, mentally ill offenders and mentally retarded offenders. For effective supervision of these offenders, supervision should be accompanied by appropriate emotional and psychological counseling.