a) The psychoanalyst argument: Psychoanalyst observes that each stage in life development is focused on solving a given conflict. It is due to poor development of trust arising from unreliable care taker of the child, which makes her feel unsecure and not safe to instances, such as darkness. The solution given is that caretakers should always work to create trust in the development of the child.
b) The behaviorist argument: The behavioral theorist would argue that development in the child’s behavior entirely depends on her environmental interactions. Fear or being frightened, especially in darkness is explained to have arisen from not having been exposed to the darkness. It can also be unconditional in such a way that whenever there’s darkness, fear is automatically triggered. They suggest that to avoid such fright in the development of the child, she should be exposed to darkness in order to conditionally develop less fear reactions.
2. Developmental design
The cross-sectional design will be appropriate in this research. This is because the two groups of children are not of the same grade, there is a difference in terms of time they have joined care-taking programs, and the comparison needed is the level of experience they have dependent on school performance.
3. Reasons for not smoking or drinking for a pregnant mother
Smoking contributes to lowering level of oxygen to the child, increasing baby heart rate, still birth and miscarriage as well as premature birth. Drinking, on the other hand, contributes to low brain development and increases risks of infections according to Nebraska University Research, (2011).
4. Affordance concept
According to this case, the mother can trust Benji in walking down the steep surface. Affordance based on both Norman, who explains that there should be both perceived in the actual properties that can fundamentally determine the performance. However, Gibson’s definition,” that there should be action possibility in the environment”, all applies clearly.
5. Concept of brain plasticity
Brain hemorrhage affects coordination of neurons in the brain. Brain plasticity helps to reorganize neural pathways in the functioning of the brain given the exposure to experiences. Therefore, there is hope for Lucia’s brain to develop normally provided that she will be exposed to learning new things. This will help develop long lasting changes in the functioning of her brain.
6. Piaget’s and Vygosky's view
Complementing point: Both theories center in their argument that developing children are faced with challenges in the environment; they show readiness to face them as well as existence of a social environment for interaction, which contributes to development.
Differing point: They will differ in the manner they involve language,culture,open environment for exploration as well as involvement of structured programs to facilitate development in addition to including peer or adults to nature children development.
7. Memory performance and type
Ali's memory performance is procedural as his way of giving information does not rely on recalling consciously the past information, but what she has learned. It is useful because it is more suited in learning on skills, especially when they are repeated.
8. Bi-directional relationship between IQ and schooling
It is observed that children, who have high IQ, get lofty scores in schools and they are also capable of staying in school for long. On the other hand, schooling is also observed to contribute to IQ development of a child. Those who are delayed to go to school or taking long times out of school tend to drop in their IQ in spite of their high level.
9. Memory reconstructive error in Jason's language mastering
He is affected by involuntary false way of remembering of events and hence his approach to the languagemay be difficult to mastering it well.
10. Infant attachment and effect
She is likely to develop to be an avoidant mother, who will not take much interest in the progress of her children.
11. Development of Social prejudice
Marla seems to have developed common minds that some things that happen in life are just the same; for instance, she knows that pupils get poor grades because they are lazy.
12. Social cognitive capacities
Through use of inductive discipline to develop children, the guiding principles given to them are internalized in their behavior and they are able to focus on the feelings of their fellow children. They are also able to empathize with them too. Empathy enables them to give help to the society.
13. Social Schema theory
The society that Roger comes from seems to have linked up the characteristics that are alleged to define a given sex in association with certain duty. In this case, the culture could have maintained that it is female, who are nurses while male are the doctors in medical services.
14. Authoritative versus authoritarian and permissive parenting
Authoritative parenting is seen to be the best because it helps to maintain close emotional ties between children and parents. It also works to effectively nature them academically, behavioral wise as well as control of their social emotions. Authoritarian, on the other hand, is rules based and is likely to erode the relationship between parents and the children. It also encourages secretiveness in children due to fear. Permissive parenting is also poor as it has negative consequences such as making children feel they have right to get what they want. This makes them be impatient and not self-restraint in their future characteristics.
15. Peer sociability changes
At this stages, children form groups that are ethnic based, have similar characteristics, are of the same sex and also based on the kind of popularity the partner carry. The groups are specifically described by a certain code. They are bonded together by the code, which identifies them on common grounds.
Newman, B. (2012). Development through life: a psychosocial approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Muzi, M. (2000). Child development: through time and transition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.