- What is the difference between non-probability and probability sampling? Give examples of both.
Sampling is used when a researcher wants to make a choice on who or what to study. From the entire population, the researcher may pick on a further small group limiting the scope. This group chosen is what is called a sample and the process of choosing it sampling. Probability sampling is done randomly while non-probability sampling is non-random. Purposive sampling is an example of probability sampling because it’s done with an intension already at the back of the mind. This involves a choice between one or more predetermined groups. On the other end, snowball sampling is an example of non-probability sampling and it involves identifying a single person and then allowing him/her to make suggestions of the people that could be included. With such kind of sampling, chances are the people will be picked non-randomly.
- Explain the 3 purposes of research.
The three commonly known purposes of research are; exploration which is a desire for one to become familiar with some topic that may be new or just an area one is interested in. Exploration is often aimed at current awareness of the new topics or even the expansion of the old topics in which one may be interested. Then there is description which involves a research seeking to answer the questions of how, when, what and where an occurrence takes place. An intensive description of the subject of study is written and compiled and this may focus on all or some areas. Lastly, explanation as a research purpose is out to unravel the reasons behind some occurrences or problems.
- What are the units of analysis in a study? Name 2 of the 5 types.
A unit of analysis forms the subject of the research; it’s what or who is being given the principal focus in the study or simply what/who is being studied. A unit of analysis can be an organization that is being studied or examined by a research in relation to a particular fact or problem. An organization can be subjected to study by its competitors or any other interested parties to establish the cause of their success or failure and to determine the trend of its productivity. On the other hand, a study of an organization could be entirely focused on its employees.
Another possible unit of analysis is a group of people. This is usually done on a group of people that share a common culture and behavioral patterns. For instance, one could choose to conduct a study on a group of gangs, exploring its origin, culture and maybe driving forces.
- What is the difference between cross sectional and longitudinal research?
Cross sectional research is an observational study done at one in time. Researchers go out and gather the information they require without having to involve the subjects in the study environments. This is major to getting accurate and reliable primary information since the study environments cannot be manipulated to give a different report from the usual occurrences.
Longitudinal research is also observational study but conducted over an extended amount of time in examining something. As opposed to cross sectional research, this research involves the subjects to a great extent and there is a probability that the normal processes may be altered hence inaccurate data.