Example Of Annotated Bibliography On Genomics

Published: 2021-06-21 23:56:50
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Category: Nursing, Genetics, Middle East, Prostate Cancer, Diagnosis, DNA, Cancer, Genome

Type of paper: Essay

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Akash, K., Jay, S., & Nelson, P. (2011). Mutations Genome Interrupted: Sequencing of Prostate Cancer Reveals the Importance of Chromosomal Rearrangements. Genome Med , 3-23.

Prostate cancer is a huge public health menace but despite it being the most popular diagnosed cancer, very little is known about its cause due to the heterogeneity in the cells of the prostrate and also lack of an organized on the genes expressing in this tissue. In this article, Akash, Jay and peter try to show sequencing of prostate cancer reveals the importance of chromosomal rearrangements thus paving a way into a discovery of a remedy of the cure of cancer
Prostate cancer is diagnosed in close to 200,000 men and reflects to more than 30,000 fatalities in the USA every year; a sample of 10 men was peaked as the experimental units. All the patients were supposed to be histological y proven that they had metastasized prostate cancer through biopsy, Blood samples and buccal swabs were obtained from the patients and study conducted according to the consent of the patients. Analysis was done using the fluorescence in situ hybridization and it was noted that a set of novel genes repeatedly disrupted by changing positions encoding an adhesion molecule this was noted in six out of ten case, mutations in PTEN and MAGI2 seemed to be different raising concern of involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway a booster of carcinogenesis in the prostate gland a potential target of therapeutic agents.

The above result provides genomic characteristics which are prognostic and submissive to pharmacological control. Since many types of cancer are driven by single gene alterations that can be targeted like the Bcr-abl fusion protein of chronic myelogenous leukemia, it is possible to use this method to synthesize target molecules that can inhibit alterations in prostate gland genes thus controlling prostrate cancer.
The information provided by this article shows how the alterations in the genes can trigger cancer, it also goes ahead and demonstrates the various processes and specific examples when it comes to monitoring and accessing the general performance of the procedure as much as it demonstrates all this however it doesn't provide enough information that can rule out the possibility of recurrence of mutated genes in prostate cancer. “One of the big surprises is the fact that prostate cancer doesn’t have a large number of misspellings, but instead has a large, significant number of rearrangements,” (Mark Rubin, 1987). Prostate cancer demonstrates a lot of rearrangements in the genome.

The work brought forward by Berger and colleagues brings forth the high levels of efficiency, diversity and completion of detecting tumor genomes. The affordability and breakthrough of whole genome sequencing approaches indicate that this technology is reliable for managing cancer patients in future, thus I recommend it

Conclusion.

This analysis is a discovery tool in cancer for it highlights oncogenes, identify new model of rearrangement of chromosomes and their causes. As the hunt for tumor promoting and suppressing genes continues, this work shows the strength of genomic characterization to point genes disrupted by shift in position that are undetectable by other approaches
Jingxuan Shan, D. R.-B. (2013). Genome Scan Study of Prostate Cancer in Arabs: Identification of The Genomic Region with Multiple Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Loci in Tunisia. Journal of Transitional Medicine , 1-20.

Prostate cancer is a very common malignancy in the western countries and second in terms of causing deaths related to cancer in Europe and United states. In this article jingxuan Shan and colleagues try to defend and demonstrate that Genome scan can be used to identify several prostate cancer loci. In this article the authors use Affymetrix Genome-wide human SNP Array to generate single nucleotide polymorphism. Since prostate cancer is associated with genes, performing this research will open up to understand the exact genome of the carcinogenic tumors and try to see how they can be targeted pharmacologically.
This research was conducted in a sample of 221 Tunisians, where 90 were prostate cancer patients 331 matches’ age health controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped into their blood samples. A sample of Arabs was also used as experimental units. After this, a quantitative trait locus analysis called In-silico expression was performed alongside mRNA quantification to determine the loci that was potentially cis-regulated by the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms.
After this process jingxuan Shan and colleagues found that three regions in the chromosomes comprising 14 SNPs were closely linked with prostate cancer risk in the Tunisians. Quantitative locus analysis with mRNA quantification showed that SNPs associated with prostate cancer of chromosome 17 could facilitate expression of STAT5B gene.

The most straight forward way to address genetic effects of SNPs is to check their effect on transcription of neighboring genes from the data above the authors showed that there was a relationship between SNPs on chromosome 17 and STAT5B expression, this locus can be a very good marker for prostate cancer diagnosis and prodiagnosis.Transcription factor STAT5A/B and STAT3 that are pronounced in prostate cancer are important in growth and metastasis of PC cells.
This article articulates the protocol of determination of how SNPs can influence expression of other genes, this is a very good ground for developing a marker for diagnosis of prostate cancer, However the article only confines itself to Tunisians and Arabs who are not affected as much as males in U.S.A by prostate cancer
However since the article provides a relationship between complete genome analysis of plasmid DNA with assay for prostate cancer tumors and also brings the Idea of developing markers that can be used in diagnosing cancer, then the article can be recommended.
Conclusion

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