During the time of the Napoleon war which took place in 1820s, countries such as Argentina, Columbia and Chile Among others gained independence from the Spanish control. However, it was the United States of America which was the first to recognise their independence from Spain.
After Napoleon went down, the Spain’s’ monarchy gained power. The Spanish felt embarrassed because of losing their colonies to independence. Thereafter, Spain demanded for the return of their colonies of the new world. However, the Great Britain refused to let Spanish take back their independence colonies. It was believed that as free countries, the combination of Spanish-American nation could trade more goods with the Great Britain. This was seen as a factor that could decrease the level of trade between Spain and the great Britain.
It is prudent to note that in the year 1823, the United States had no adequate military and economic power which could be used to support and sustain war between it and any other nations if it could arise. Infract, Adams questioned whether the United States could go to war if Spain acted hostile to the Latin Americans. However, the then president Monroe doubted his statement and replied “it is written and I will not change it” .
The Monroe doctrine despite being written earlier, it was first put to work against Russia in the convention that took place in the year 1824. The doctrine made Russia to give up the Oregon territory after which parallel and the American trade was allowed to carry out trade and operate in Russia territory on the north of American continent. (Faragher 992)
In the year 1904 December, the corollary was added to the Monroe doctrine by President Theodore Roosevelt. This doctrine stated that the United States of America was not to interfere with the nations constituting Latin America that conducts their affairs in mannerly fashion. However, the doctrine reiterated that such nations that would not conduct their affairs in mannerly fashion, the Americans will intervene and act as policemen.
In the year 1930, President Hoover created a Clark memorandum that counteracted the corollary doctrine of Theodore Roosevelt. The new doctrine prevented the United States from engaging in the affairs of Latin Americans. He further claimed that if the doctrine was to be applied in Latin America, then it will only be applied for its original purpose which was to protect the Latin Americans from European interference.
The doctrine protected the United States interests. For instance, the carter doctrine which was modified from the Monroe doctrine was written in response to the attempt by the Soviet Union to obtain a warm water port in the Persian Gulf area. So, the United States of America wanted to protect the area from Soviet Union because the Persian Gulf was rich in oil deposits which were very important in the expansion of the U.S economy. (Faragher 992)
Faragher, John Mack. “Out of Many One: a history of the American people”. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1997.
“Monroe Doctrine.” The World Book Encyclopaedia. 1984 ed.