Principle of Toleration-This principle involves enduring a plethora of moral values, beliefs, and freedom of expression. For this reason, respect and accommodation should be accorded to divergent beliefs and opinions irrespective of their source. This principle is important in encouraging intellect, philosophy, and religious principles among other values that support liberty and human rights(Paul, 2006). According to great philosophers such as JS Mill and John Locke, the principle of tolerance presupposes individual freedom and autonomy thereby leading to the development of an innovative and creative society(Paul, 2006).
Principle of Stewardship-As human beings, we ought to take care of the natural resources bestowed unto by the environment. The principle of stewardship argues that humans are responsible for the management and thorough planning as far as the consumption of natural resources is concerned (Karns, 2011). In all aspects, the human nature and the earth should be appreciated with due respect given to all its capacities. All gifts found on earth must be utilized with utmost respect to prevent situations where such gifts can be destroyed(Karns, 2011). This applies to the scarcity of natural and valuable resources. Human beings must identify sustainable strategies to guide effective use of natural resources.Principle of Subsidiarity-There is no doubt that the principle of subsidiarity provides remedies for decision making processes within organizations. In this regard, this principle is applicable for virtually all aspects of moral life. Attaining judicial balance between the different levels in society ensures that individuals in lower ranks within the society or the organization are allowed to participate in decision making processes with other senior staffs in organizations(Mele, 2005). While the principle of subsidiarity favors decision making processes by individuals lower in rank, it calls for those in higher ranks to support their subordinates in coordinating activities related to decision making processes (Mele, 2005). Simply put, the principle of subsidiarity ensures that persons in authority give those with lesser authority the chance to engage in decision-making processes.
-this is the first principle of morality, humans have the responsibility to always do well in all their actions and avoid harming others. (Timko, 2001, p. 24) This principle is independent in its content and how an individual defines it. Beneficence is a personal obligation not to harm those people around him. The principle of nonmaleficense is normally considered as a corollary principle to beneficence, in both this principles, it is sometimes interpreted that if one does good and harm, it is good if he or she does not act at all. Being a middle principle, beneficence is the center of moral norms (depending on how an individual defines it). Some of the specific norms that are attached to beneficence include; do not kill deliberately, never directly intend harm to any fellow human along with acting out of charity and justice.
-common good includes all the situations in a society and the goods that are attached to these situations which permit individuals to accomplish spiritual and human prosperity. This principle insists that all individuals and organizations must enthusiastically engage in advocating for human welfare and health for everyone in the society, so that each and every individual can contribute to the universal good. The teachings in this principle are summarized in the principle of common good and its corollary principle of subsidiary. According to this principle, there are three essential principles, peace and security, social wellbeing and value to everyone. It is very obligatory for every person in the society to fulfill his or her vocation in order to achieve the common good in the society.
-this principle implies that the society and its legal government have the obligation to help the individual in stern need, it is also obligatory for other individuals in the society to attend to those in need (Rescher, 2002). This principle advocates for equality to all people before the harms of the law, the society should guarantee justice to all individuals in the society regardless of his or her status in the society. Everyone is unrestricted to equal access to basic needs that are necessary to human sustainability and in living the human way. Distributive justice can be defined as what the society owes its individuals members in proportion to: individual wants, the society’s responsibility to the common good and the resources available to the individuals.
-an action that is good has two effects, an intentional and the unintended. When there is a conflict between two universally accepted norms, the do good and avoid evil, the query arises when the individual is left to choose between avoiding evil and to abstain from a good action in order to avoid an anticipated but merely acceptable concomitant evil effect. This principle postulates that an individual needs not to abstain from a good action that has anticipated bad effects, in relation to some specific criteria in the principle of double effect as listed below.
- The objective of an act must not compromise with one’s commitment to God and other people including him or her.
- The intention of the action must be to attain positive effects and avoid anticipated harm to people.
- Foreseen positive effects should not be achieved by means that is likely to cause foreseen negative effects as much as possible.
- Perceived positive effects should be greater or equal to the foreseen negative effects.
- Beneficial effects must follow the negative effects immediately.
-people must work mutually in order to attain and preserve beneficial goods and avoid any evil. In this perspective, cooperation is used to refer to the moral or physical assistance intentionally given by an organization to an individual or another cooperator. To intend the misconduct of others in this case is termed as formal cooperation. Formal cooperation according to the Catholics occurs when an organization freely take part in the intolerable action of another agent and/or contribute in the intended act in order to achieve a certain goal. Immediate materiel cooperation occurs when an association contributes to individuals in explicit situations that are a essential condition for the organization to carry out specific obnoxious action.
-human dignity is above any human order. Based on the Catholics perspective, human dignity is fixed to the (Imago Dei), in Jesus Christ liberation and in our eventual union with our God. Human dignity in general is the theoretical basis for human rights. In providing the foundation of normative claims, one direct implication of human dignity is that every human being should be acknowledged as the intrinsically precious member of the community with a spiritual and bodily nature. Since our customs highlights the essential nature of our body and spirit, the human takes on great value than the existing dualistic notion of the person.
- this principle advocates for the right of every individual to improve his or her welfare. This accountability is exercised by individuals by voluntarily refusing consent to propose medical procedures based on the adequate knowledge on the benefits and the risks involved. The ability of an individual to provide informed consent depends on:
- Adequate exposure to information
- Individual’s freedom of choice
- Individual’s understanding of the information
- Patient’s ability to make decision
- principles of integrity dictates that the welfare of an individual must be taken into deep consideration in deciding use of things like technology. Therapeutic procedure that is liable to cause any form of harm to a patient should only be justified by proportionate benefit to the individual concerned. In this perspective, integrity refers to the individual’s responsibility to preserve the view of humanity whereby the value of intellect conscience and fraternity are paramount. Arguably, based on this principle, part of an individual’s body can be sacrificed if it means an assured continuity of the patient. While these sacrifices are justified under the principle of integrity and totality, it may be relinquished under the principles of disproportionate means.
Principle of Proportionate and Disproportionate Means-this principle constitute a very crucial approach in ethical queries arising from the general responsibilities to protect humanity and the limit of the obligation as well. Among the many questions, this principle addresses whether the forgoing life sustainability care constitute a physical assisted suicide in particular situations and it gives guide to the individual and substitute decision making in the weighing of burdens and benefits. Proportionate means any treatment that offers a sensible hope of benefit and is not lumber some to the patients or others. What is rational hope to an individual should be considered within the perspective of a whole person. Misappropriate means on the other is a treatment that offers no reasonable hope or beneficial substance and or is too burdensome for patients and other people.
Principle of Religious Freedom- under this principle, all individuals have equal rights to religious freedom that has its establishment on human dignity. This principle postulates that no competent individual should be forced to act in a manner differing from his or her own religious beliefs. Under this principle, individuals have the right to refute participating in any kind of religious procedures that compromises with the individuals are not restrained from acting according to their beliefs, within suitable limits.
Principle of Respect for Autonomy- this principle acknowledges the right of an individual to make choices and take the necessary action based on his or her values, beliefs and norms. Under this principle, respect does not only mean refraining from other people’s choices but also providing them with the necessary conditions and opportunities for exercising autonomy.
Principle of Respect for Persons- all individual human beings are supposed to act freely and responsible, in this case, individuals with reduced self-sufficiency are entitled to proper protection according to the principles of justice, humanity and the sensational consent. Individuals should appreciate other people’s weakness by showing compassion and value to everyone.
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